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Patient Education Center

Eye Topics

Close up of woman blue eye analyzing chart interfaces“I believe strongly in patient education. I dedicate the Patient Education Center of this website to the tens of thousands of well-informed patients that I have had the honor of serving for two decades.” Dr. Jovkar

Please kindly note that the Patient Education Center does not establish a patient-doctor relationship nor recommends individualized treatment. It is provided as general information on any topic that may or may not specifically apply to you. Call your doctor or emergency medical services immediately for any medical emergency!

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and nutritional supplements

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease caused by damage or breakdown of the macula, the small part of the retina that is responsible for our central vision. read more »

Amblyopia Treatment

Amblyopia (“lazy eye”) is caused by unequal refractive errors, misaligned eyes (strabismus) or other abnormalities. Patching is one technique for treating amblyopia. read more »

Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

Ischemic (pronounced iss-KEE-mik) optic neuropathy (ION) is a relatively sudden loss of central vision, side vision, or both due to decreased or interrupted blood flow to the eye’s optic nerve.  read more »

Bell’s Palsy

Bell’s palsy is a nerve disorder that causes partial or slight paralysis on one side of the face.  read more »


Eyelid margin disease is a common and persistent inflammation of the eyelids. Eyelid margin disease is a common and persistent inflammation of the eyelids. read more »

Carotid Artery and the Eye

The carotid (pronounced ka-rah-tid) arteries are located in your neck and are the main arteries supplying blood to the eyes and brain. read more »


The term chalazion (pronounced kuh-LAY-zee-un) comes from a Greek word meaning small lump. A chalazion is an enlargement of an oil-producing gland in the eyelid called the meibomian gland. read more »

Cataracts Description

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Conjunctivitis is the term used to describe inflammation of the conjunctiva — the thin, filmy membrane that covers the inside of your eyelids and the white part of your eye (sclera). read more »

Corneal Abrasion

The cornea is the clear front window of the eye. It covers the iris (colored portion of the eye) and the round pupil, much like a watch crystal covers the face of a watch. read more »

Cystoid Macular Edema

Cystoid macular edema, commonly called CME, is a disorder that affects the retina, the layer of light-sensing cells lining the back of your eye. The retina converts light rays into signals, which are sent through the optic nerve to your. read more »

Fuch’s Dystrophy

Fuch’s dystrophy is a progressive disease affecting the part of the eye called the cornea. The cornea is like the crystal covering a clock face. read more »

Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis

Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC) is a condition where the inner surface of the eyelid becomes irritated. It is most commonly related to wearing contact lenses. read more »

Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes simplex is a virus that infects the skin, mucous membranes and nerves. read more »

Herpes Zoster

Herpes zoster, commonly known as “shingles,” is caused by the same virus responsible for chicken pox. read more »


Keratoconus (pronounced KEHR-uh- toh-KOH-nus) is an uncommon condition in which the normally round, dome-like cornea (the clear front window of the eye) becomes thin and develops a cone-like bulge. Keratoconus literally means &ldq. read more »


Migraine is a common neurological condition occurring in at least 15 to 20 percent of the population and in up to 50 percent of women.

Classic migraine starts with visual symptoms (often zigzag lines, colored lights or flashes of light expanding to. read more »

Ocular Rosacea

Rosacea (pronounced rose-AY-shah) is a chronic disease that affects both the skin and the eyelids. People with rosacea affecting their skin may flush easily and have redness, acne-like symptoms or both, on their nose, cheeks, chin or forehead. read more »

Optic Neuritis

Optic neuritis is an inflammation of the eye’s optic nerve. In order for you to see, the optic nerve carries nerve impulses from the eye to the brain, where they are interpreted as images. read more »

Pseudotumor Cerebri

Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is a condition in which high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure inside your head can cause problems with vision and headache. The term “pseudotumor” (which means “false tumor”) comes from. read more »


Presbyopia is a condition in which your eyes gradually lose the ability to see things up close. It is not a disorder or disease but rather a natural aging process of the eye. read more »


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Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of genetic disorders that affect the retina’s ability to respond to light. The retina is the layer of light-sensing cells lining the back of your eye that converts light rays into impulses. read more »

Smoking and Eye Disease

Tobacco smoking is directly linked to many adverse health effects, including high blood pressure, heart disease and cancer. read more »

Retinal Vein Occlusion

A retinal vein occlusion occurs when a vein in the eye’s retina is blocked. The retina is the layer of light-sensing cells lining the back of your eye. read more »

Retinopathy of Prematurity

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an eye disease that occurs in a small percentage of premature babies. read more »


Abnormal or overflow eye tearing is a common condition in infants. In fact, approximately one-third of all newborns have excessive tears and mucus. read more »

Thyroid Eye Disorders

The thyroid gland, located in the front of the neck, produces hormones that help regulate your body’s metabolism (the process in which the body transforms food into energy).In a small number of people, the thyroid gland malfunctions and produces mo.. read more »

Tearing in Adults

The lacrimal gland and other small glands located inside the eyelid and on the white part of the eye constantly produce tears to keep the eye moist, lubricated and healthy. read more »

Visual Field Testing

Your visual field refers to how much you can see around you, including objects in your peripheral (side) vision. This test produces a map of your field of vision. Visual field tests helps Dr… read more »