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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and nutritional supplements

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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease caused by damage or breakdown of the macula, the small part of the retina that is responsible for our central vision. This condition affects both distance and close vision and can make some activities — like threading a needle or reading — very difficult or impossible. Macular degeneration is the leading cause of severe vision loss in people over the age of 65.

How can vitamins and minerals affect AMD?

Although the exact causes of AMD are not fully understood, a 2001 scientific study called AREDS (Age-Related Eye Disease Study) has shown that some antioxidant vitamins and zinc may reduce the impact of AMD in some people.

The study found that people at higher risk for late-stage macular degeneration who followed a dietary supplement of vitamin C, E and beta-carotene, along with zinc, lowered the risk of the disease progressing to advanced stages by about 25 percent. The same treatment did not appear to achieve the same results among people without AMD, or within the first stages of the disease.

Deposits located beneath the retina, named drusen, are a common sign of AMD. By themselves, such deposits don’t cause loss of vision but, in increased numbers and size, they are an indication of being at risk to develop an advanced stage of AMD. People at risk of developing a late stage of AMD may have a significant amount of drusen, prominent dry AMD, or presence of abnormal blood vessels beneath the macula in one eye (wet AMD).

The nutritional supplements used by AREDS that proved to be beneficial contain:

  •  vitamin C (500 mg);
  •  vitamin E (400 IU);
  •  beta-carotene (15 mg);
  •  zinc oxide (80 mg);
  • copper oxide (2 mg, to prevent the loss of copper associated with zinc supplements).

The levels of antioxidants and zinc that were shown to be effective in slowing AMD’s progression cannot be consumed through your diet alone. These vitamins and minerals are recommended in specific daily amounts as supplements to a healthy, balanced diet, to benefit the health of people with minimal presence of AMD, or those without evidence of macular degeneration.

Some people may prefer not to take high dosages of antioxidants or zinc for medical reasons. The AREDS study did not reveal any evidence that the treatment may be toxic. However, beta-carotene may increase the risk of developing lung cancer among smokers, or those who have quit smoking recently.


It is very important to remember that vitamin supplements are not a cure for AMD, nor will they restore vision you may have already lost from the disease. However, specific amounts of certain supplements do play a key role in helping some people at high risk for advanced AMD to maintain their vision. Talk to Dr. Jovkar to determine if you are at risk for developing advanced AMD and to learn if supplements are recommended for you.




Library of Eyecare Topics

Library of Eyecare Topics

Dr. Jovkar is pleased to offer you information on many eye topics below.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and nutritional supplements
Amblyopia Treatment
Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
Bell's Palsy
Carotid Artery and the Eye
Corneal Abrasion
Cystoid Macular Edema
Fuch's dystrophy
Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis
Herpes Simplex Virus
Herpes Zoster Virus
Ocular Rosacea
Optic Neuritis
Pseudotumor cerebri
Retinitis Pigmentosa
Smoking and eye disease
Retinal Vein Occlusion
Retinopathy of prematurity
Thyroid eye disorders
Tearing in Adults
Treatment of Amblyopia
Visual Field Testing

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Nutrition and your eyes:
Relationship of nutrition and age-realted conditions:
Vitamin C
Nutrition and age-related macular degeneration
Vitamin E
Nutrition and cataracts
Antioxidants and age-related eye disease
Lutein and Zeaxanthin: eye-friendly nutrients
Portion sizes you'll understand
Informational Links:
National Eye Institute
All About Vision

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Our Bay Area office, located at 15251 National Ave, Suite 100, Los Gatos, CA 95032, provides eyecare, eye exam, LASIK, laser vision correction, cataract and other eye surgeries for patients in the following areas: Bay Area Eye Doctor, Campbell, Cupertino, Fremont, Gilroy, Los Altos, Los Altos Hills, Los Gatos Eye Care, Milpitas, Morgan Hill, Monte Sereno, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Pleasanton, San Jose, San Martin, San Mateo, Santa Clara County, Santa Clara Valley, Saratoga, Scotts Valley, South Bay, Sunnyvale